Types of Basement Construction Methods | 4 Types You Do not Know Before

The basement gives the house the stability to maintain integrity in all weather conditions and other environmental problems such as earthquakes and floods. In some places, authorities recommend a basement wall construction method based on soil conditions and yearly precipitation rates. Here are the types of basement construction methods.

Types of Basement Construction Methods

Types of Basement Construction Methods

Open cellar construction

This method is used for shallow basements that need to be dug up with a slope. The form is considered economical because the foundation wall is not needed in this case. Slope and terrain will vary based on design, analysis, and evaluation.

Advantages:

  • Low budget
  • Save time by building a shallow basement.
  • High Quality
  • Lack of lateral support

Disadvantages:

  • Cannot be used in a deep basement.
  • They require a lot of space during construction.
  • High risk of collapse due to high humidity or running water.

Application:

  • Cohesive soil, less susceptible to
  • Small basement

Vertical section construction method

The earthwork reinforcement method is another name for this method. Unlike the open-cut method, a vertical cut requires a perimeter wall around the cut. On the other hand, the circular wall can be replaced with a miter saw, diaphragm wall, and steel saw. During construction, temporary struts and supports should be part of the wall maintenance system.

Advantages:

  • Minimize the excavation area
  • Ensure the stability of the deep excavation side.
  • The impact of running groundwater is reduced.

Disadvantages

  • Cannot be used in large quantities in the basement.
  • Require a temporary system
  • Requires a perimeter retaining wall
  • High budget

Application:

  • Small to medium-sized basement
  • The type of soil depends on the perimeter of the wall.

Method of construction from the top down:

Its construction starts from the top to the bottom, and the first slab is completed. It is done before the construction of the superstructure begins. The building plate is after each embossing step, so the plates are considered to support to the maintenance of the ground floor.

Construction process: retaining wall structure and pile structure under the superstructure column; by installing the formwork and placing the columns on the piles of the 1st slab at the top, then after each excavation, additional slabs will be erected

Advantages:

  • Short construction time
  • A safer building surface because the boards are stronger than braces.
  • Low risk of ground movement
  • Reduces the impact of bad weather.

Disadvantages: 

  • Expensive
  • Require comprehensive design support
  • It is necessary to have adequate lighting and ventilation.
  • Limit access to handling operations.

Application:

  • Very large and sophisticated basement
  • Nail primer

Excavation Lateral Support System

Steel pile wall: A pile wall is a retaining wall designed to retain soil, water, and any other filler material.

There are two types of materials. One is a 12m long U or Z-shaped steel rebar. And the other is concrete block reinforcement, which is heavy and bulky. Vibration, press notch are three ways to install a sheet metal wall.

Advantages:

  • Provides excellent resilience to driving stress 
  • Easy to store.
  • Ability to reuse on different projects
  • Long service life above or underwater

Basement Excavation Techniques

Excavating soil for the cellar’s basement does not just entail digging a massive hole in the earth with heavy machinery and then dumping it into concrete. There is the necessary planning. To develop a foundation that will support your building, you must apply suitable basement excavation techniques.

Digging a cellar is a big project that requires know-how to get it done correctly. Call a specialist, whether it’s new construction, an extension to an existing home or you need to dig due to damaged foundations. In most cases, they will dig up your basement using one of the ways listed below.

Completely open method

There are two types associated with this method: oblique and cantilever.

Implementing the sloped method will probably cost you less because you do not need additional support to support the foundation wall due to the sloped sides. On the other hand, the completely open approach necessitates retaining walls to prevent the sides from collapsing during excavation. The cantilever method is more expensive but is preferable for deeper grooves.

Method of Bracing

When using this method, straight horizontal braces must be installed in front of the retrained wall. The uprights will hold material pressure from the retaining wall. Reinforcement systems require center posts, end posts, and corner posts, as well as struts and beams. The roller transfers the weight of the removed soil onto the tracks. End and corner reinforcements are designed to reduce the span of the shafts without increasing the number of struts. Center pillars help prevent rack failure.

Anchored method

If you choose the anchoring method, you will need to install anchors that will withstand the pressure of the earth during excavation. It works in the following way: the connected part of the armature provides a force against the pressure of the earth. The unconnected part transfers pressure to the anchor head. Ultimately, the head of the anchor transfers the weight to the retaining wall. The strength of the anchor depends on the strength of the soil and higher the strength of the soil, the greater the anchoring force.

Island method

One of the safest methods for laying a basement foundation is the island approach. If you plan to use the island method, you will first need to excavate the excavation center. Then place the excavated material near the retaining walls that will create the slope. Much of the structure you dug will be created in the middle of the lot. Spacers will be required between the main structure and the retaining walls.

So, which of these basement excavation methods is best for you? The best way depends on the conditions, your budget, and how much time you have. It is important to check with a vendor (or two) to determine which method they can recommend in your unique situation.

Frequently Asked Questions 

What’s the best basement floor?

Vinyl is the best flooring for basements. Vinyl flooring comes in the shape of vinyl planks and vinyl tiles, and they may imitate the appearance of hardwood and stone while still being waterproof.

What is the cost of digging a basement?

You should expect to pay between $1,500 to $6,000 on average. Digging a hole for a new basement or basement can start at $500 for DIY work – just rent the equipment for a small project. For larger projects, expect payouts between $6,000 and $ 10,000.

What is the average time it takes to dig a basement?

Remember that how long it takes to dig your job will be influenced by several factors, and times can vary greatly. However, digging the foundation can take from 3 to 4 days to 3 weeks. In general, the worst-case scenario is to dig 10 feet deep.

How deep should you dig in the cellar?

In the case of a full-fledged foundation, the depth of your foundation will be less than the freezing depth. Cellars have foundations and are usually 8-foot walls built on a 4-inch concrete wall. The board will serve as a floor in an underground room where you can store your home’s mechanical and air conditioning system or use it as storage.

What are the types of basement buildings?

Basement buildings can be built out of various materials, but there are three primary types: monolithic concrete, block or masonry walls, and prefabricated panels.

What is the best method for waterproofing a basement?

Outside foundation waterproofing usually involves:

  • Using polymers and membranes to cover the exterior walls.
  • Installing a drainage ditch underground.
  • Combining both.

Properly designed outdoor drainage is generally considered the most effective way to waterproof a basement.

How do they keep the basement waterproof?

External waterproofing involves excavating the entire home to the full level of the foundation walls and applying a waterproofing coating or membrane, followed by installing drainage panels. The panels provide easy water passage to the outdoor gutter at the bottom of your base.

Conclusion

Basements can bring real benefits to your home. They allow you to create a public space outside of your typical living room or open spaces. 

On the other hand, they may have drawbacks that need to be considered if you’re going to integrate them into your new construction home. Consider the various styles of basement construction and how they differ from one another.

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